Search Results for: argonne

Bacteria Turn Microgears for Micropower Production

Researchers from Northwestern University, Princeton, and Argonne National Laboratory used bacteria swimming in liquid to turn tiny gears suspended in the same medium. Various gear designs have already been developed (side image) that can harness the power of the bacteria. We recently reported on a project out of the University of Rome that has achieved what seems like the same feat. If it proves to be practical, this technology may one day power implantable medical microdevices.

The microgears, just 380 microns long with slanted spokes, are produced in collaboration with Northwestern University and placed in the solution along with the common aerobic bacteria Bacillus subtilis. Andrey Sokolov of Princeton University and Igor Aronson from Argonne, along with Bartosz A. Grzybowski and Mario M. Apodaca from Northwestern University, observed that the bacteria appeared to swim at random—but occasionally the organisms collided with the spokes of the gear and began turning it in a definite direction.

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Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Help Target Brain Cancer

Nanowerk is spotlighting research by Argonne National Laboratory scientists to develop bioconjugated nanoparticles that seek out brain tumor cells while avoiding attack on healthy tissue. Although various nanoparticles tend to passively gather in larger numbers in tumor cells due to the so-called “permeability and retention effect”, the differentiation is not specific enough when dealing with particularly fragile brain tissue.
Nanowerk explains:

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Quantum Dots May Prove Effective Against Cancer Cells

Researchers from McGill University and Argonne National Laboratory have published a paper in Nanoscale discussing the potential use of quantum nanodots, or nano sized particles of semiconductor material, to produce reactive oxygen species for killing cancer cells using photodynamic therapy.

According to Nadeau [Jay Louise Nadeau, an Assistant Professor of Microbiology and Immunology at McGill --ed.] ‘some nanoparticles don’t make singlet oxygen but they do when they are connected to small molecules like [the neurotransmitter] dopamine. That opens up a whole other avenue for investigation,’ she says. Her team also found that the dopamine-conjugated quantum dots can be used to kill mammalian cells but only on irradiation with UV-to-blue light. This means the quantum dots are unlikely to be toxic in the body, where the light cannot penetrate, but could have an effect on skin, the researchers claim. They suggest that similar conjugated nanoparticles could potentially be used in photodynamic therapy for skin cancer treatment.

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Nanowarrior David Gidalevitz is Fighting Antibiotic Resistance

Our friend and an unofficial consultant to Medgadget on all things nanomedicine, Dr. David Gidalevitz was recently profiled by Illinois Institute of Technology Magazine. David is an IIT Coleman Faculty Scholar and Assistant Professor of Physics who does some amazing nano research with potentially huge clinical implications:

Gidalevitz’s work involves the construction of membrane mimics, manmade nanostructures imitative of natural cell walls. He uses these mimics to better understand the precise mechanisms that allow AMPs to recognize and disrupt bacterial cell membranes, despite their structural variation.

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For One Reason or Another, Researchers Assemble 3D DNA Structures

Scientists from New York University, Purdue, and Argonne Lab created truly three dimensional DNA crystal structures which may end up being used in electronic components or as tools for identification of biomolecular compounds. Visualization of the structures via X-ray crystallography was done at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Structural Biology Center at Advanced Photon Source in Argonne.

In the work reported in Nature…, the researchers expanded on the earlier efforts by taking advantage of DNA’s double-helix structure to create 3D crystals. The 2D crystals are very small—about 1/1000th of a millimeter—but the 3D crystals are between 1/4 and 1 millimeter, visible to the naked eye.

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Overcoming Fragility of Antibodies by Stabilizing Amino Acid Bonds

Monoclonal antibodies can be great tools for detecting toxins in the body, in diagnostic modalities such as immunohistochemistry, and, in some cases, for treatment of cancer. One problem with developing devices that actually take advantage of the antibodies’ natural ability to detect the presence of pathogens is the fragility of these complex molecules. Outside of a regulated environment, antibodies are not very stable, hence they are not well suited for point-of-care diagnostic devices. Now researchers at Argonne National Laboratory have developed a method to stabilize antibody proteins systematically, allowing them to survive in a more “rugged” environment.

Antibodies are made up of four polypeptides—two light chains and two heavy chains. These chains are made up of modules known as constant and variable domains. The light and heavy chain each have a variable domain, which come together to form the antigen binding site. Because of the great diversity of amino acids in the variable domains, different antibodies are capable of interacting with an effectively unlimited number of targets.

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Light Activated Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Kill Brain Cancer Cells On Contact

Researchers from Argonne National Laboratory and The University of Chicago’s Brain Tumor Center have developed a technique that binds antibodies to titanium dioxide particles for guidance toward tumor sites. Once on target, the particles are activated by light to release free radicals that supposedly interfere with the mitochondria of cancer cells and kill them.

Titanium dioxide is a versatile photoreactive nanomaterial that can be bonded with biomolecules. When linked to an antibody, nanoparticles recognize and bind specifically to cancer cells. Focused visible light is shined onto the affected region, and the localized titanium dioxide reacts to the light by creating free oxygen radicals that interact with the mitochondria in the cancer cells. Mitochondria act as cellular energy plants, and when free radicals interfere with their biochemical pathways, mitochondria receive a signal to start cell death.

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Ins and Outs

1,000+ Pages of Good Intentions: H. R.__ To provide affordable, quality health care for all Americans and reduce the growth in health care spending, and for other purposes…. [111TH CONGRESS 1ST SESSION]
Obama Hospital Deal Pressures Device Makers, J&J Says… [Bloomberg]

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Advanced Photon Source Helps See Influenza Structural Variations

A team from the Scripps Research Institute used Argonne’s Advanced Photon Source synchrotron to analyze the structure of the viral protein hemagglutinin. The virion surface protein, which helps the virus bind to cells, is found in all influenza strains, but the structure of it differs.
An Argonne statement explains:

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